Los Agujeros negros son dioses

Dicen que los dioses nos crearon a su imagen y semejanza según algunos. Pero parece ser que los agujeros son capaces de generar sus propias galaxias. En las galaxias hay planetas y estrellas. Y en los planetas adecuados hay vida. Podemos decir que acaba de nacer una nueva religión: los adoradores de los agujeros negros.

Todo esto viene a cuento por un estudio que parece sugerir esta posibilidad:

Nuestro estudio sugiere que los agujeros negros súper masivos pueden desencadenar la formación de estrellas y así ‘construir’ sus propias galaxias madres. Este eslabón también puede explicar por qué las galaxias que albergan agujeros negros más grandes tienen más estrellas, explicó David Elbaz, responsable del estudio.

Para llegar a tales conclusiones, los astrónomos se fijaron en un quásar (objeto que emite grandes cantidades de radiación en todas las frecuencias) bautizado como HE0450-2958 y ubicado a unos cinco mil millones de años-luz de distancia.

Se trataba del único quásar al que no se le había detectado una galaxia madre, por lo que los astrónomos trataron de observar tras las nubes de polvo a través del Very Large Telescope (VLT), instrumento que se sitúa en el Observatorio de Paranal, en el norte de Chile.

Observar a estas longitudes de onda nos permitiría localizar el polvo que podría esconder la galaxia madre, sin embargo, no encontramos nada. En cambio, descubrimos una galaxia aparentemente no relacionada en las cercanías del quásar que está produciendo estrellas a una velocidad frenética, dijo el astrónomo Knud Jahnke.

Mientras que alrededor del agujero negro no se revela ningún indicio de estrellas, la galaxia que la acompaña es extremadamente rica en estrellas muy jóvenes y brillantes.

Además, la galaxia sigue formando estrellas a una velocidad equivalente a unos 350 soles por año, cien veces más que las velocidades de galaxias típicas en el universo.

Según informó ESO en un comunicado, el quásar está arrojando un chorro de partículas altamente energéticas y una corriente de gas hacia la vecina galaxia, lo que a juicio de los astrónomos indica que el mismo quásar podría estar induciendo la formación de estrellas y creando su propia galaxia madre.

Para los especialistas este fenómeno puede explicar cómo las galaxias habrían evolucionado a partir de nubes de gas golpeadas por los energéticos chorros que emergen de los quásares.

«La pregunta del ‘huevo o la gallina’ aplicada en el sentido de si acaso viene primero la galaxia o su agujero negro es uno de los temas más debatidos hoy en astrofísica», dijo David Elbaz, autor principal de la investigación, publicada en la revista Astronomy & Astrophysics.

Además, los resultados también podrían contribuir a comprender por qué la masa de los agujeros negros es mayor en las galaxias que contienen más estrellas.

Los astrónomos esperan que con los próximos instrumentos disponibles, como el Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array, el European Extremely Large Telescope y el Telescopio Espacial James Webb de NASA/ECA/CSA, se puedan esclarecer más dudas sobre la relación entre agujeros negros y galaxias.

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