Como hacer un telescopio

Hace años, recién acabada la carrera de ciencias físicas un amigo interesado en la astronomía requirió mi ayuda para montarse un telescopio.

La forma más simple de construir un telescopio es con uno o dos tubos y dos lentes. Es el llamado telescopio de Galileo. Con él se observan las imágenes de forma invertida.Pero como no miramos a la vecina de enfrente sino a astros del cielo nos da igual.

telescopio

Una lente hará de objetivo y será por la que entre la luz. La otra será el ocular y será la encargada de focalizar las imágenes en nuestra retina.

El objetivo es una lente convergente de distancia focal lo más grande posible. El ocular es una lente convergente de focal pequeña. El foco imagen del objetivo y el foco objeto del ocular coinciden, de forma que los haces de rayos paralelos que vienen del infinito se enfocan en un punto del plano focal común; de aquí vuelven a convertirse en un haz paralelo a partir de la segunda lente. La amplitud angular resultante es

a2=a1 f1/f2

con lo que el aumento angular es

A=f1/f2

En mi caso, lo más complicado fue encontrar lentes adecuadas. Es complicado encontrar tiendas que vendan partes de instrumentos ópticos.

Es importante calcular el valor de las focales de las lentes para calcular la dimensión del tubo que las contiene. Como vemos en la ilustración la longitud del tubo deberá ser igual a la suma de las dos focales.

L=f1+f2

Si no cumplimos con esta premisa las imágenes obtenidas saldrán borrosas.

Para la construcción del tubo se puede emplear tubos de pvc, cartulinas endurecidas con aguaplast,… la imaginación juega un gran papel en este diseño. Para las lentes puedes ir a comprarte unas en una óptica o puedes incluso hacer experimentos con lupas que tengas en casa.

Os dejo aquí algunos ejemplos de como se han realizado telescopios caseros:

telescopio con lentes de gafas

Video de youtube donde se ve como se hace el telescopio con lupas y con una botella de refresco de dos litros:

Telescopio casero con tubos de pvc:

Telescopio casi profesional

Si al final no os sale muy bien siempre habréis aprendido algo y si os sale muy mal mejor buscar buenos telescopios

Enlaces:

Historia del telescopio

Fotografiar el cielo

Astronomía

Curso Astronomia General

Por último, una página web donde se explica como varios aficionados han llegado a construir sus propios telescopios caseros.

Mucha suerte a todos aquellos que queráis construir un telescopio de forma manual… cuidado con las aberraciones ópticas.

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